Monthly Archives: October 2013

First attempt at AngularJS and ASP.NET’s PageMethods & WebMethods

If you need the example, right click this link, Save As and rename to zip.

I made a first attempt at AngularJS and was particularly interested in how I can use it alongside ASP.NET Ajax. The reason is because I am very fond of PageMethods and WebMethods for Ajax, as they are extremely simple and trivial to use. I know that just by writing this short introduction some AngularJS religious fans are shaking their heads in disagreement. That’s OK.

AngularJS seems nowadays like one of the hottest frameworks so I thought I to try it out. I did some reading (the AngularJS homepage shows really helpful examples), saw some videos and experimented a bit. My purpose: see if AngularJS can be good as a templating solution. Comparing to other solutions, what I really liked about AngularJS was that it is embedded within the html itself. Note: AngularJS is much more than “just templates” (the html is not just referred to as a collection of DOM elements but as The “View” in MV* architectures) – but that’s off topic. So in comparison for example to jsrender, which I’ve been using lately, AngularJS just integrates into the html, allowing you to manipulate it using JavaScript controllers. This is very convenient because your favorite editor will colorize everything as usual. That’s just a short description of one of the advantages. To be fair I lack the experience to describe the gazillions of advantages of AngularJS. But again, this is off topic.

What I am interested in is something that I will be comfortable working with, that will also be reliable and long lasting. Without going too much into details, there are many libraries, 3rd party controls and frameworks that failed to stand up to some or all of these requirements. Sometimes when you figure out that a library is not living up to standards, it might be after lots of your work was already written using it and it’ll be very difficult or even impossible to back out. Then you have to start working around problems and this could be a pain. Which is why I would rather not become too dependent on things that might later prove to be a constraint.

Having said that, this might explain why I would rather try to integrate AngularJS with ASP.NET Ajax. The latter is something so convenient to me that I’d hate to give it up. Similarly, although jQuery is one major library that I’m working with daily and by far it is a huge success, I’m still using the good ol’ ASP.NET Ajax over jQuery’s Ajax wrappers. I manage to integrate them together with ease so that’s a comfy.

The problem was that after I experimented a little with AngularJS “hello world” samples, I tried to do the most trivial thing: make an Ajax call outside of AngularJS framework and then apply the results using AngularJS. In short, I wasn’t trying to code “in AngularJS” but to use it for templating only. Using jsrender, what I would do is perform a simple ajax call and in the callback use the results and templates, followed by injecting the html onto the page. Very simple. In AngularJS, initially, I couldn’t find a way to do that. That is, I could not find a way to change the $scope property from outside the controller. Perhaps there are ways to do that, but I failed to make a simple ajax call and set the results as a datasource.

After some time it occurred to me that I was working wrong with AngularJS. I figured that if I can’t call the AngularJS controller from outside, I need to change the datasource from the inside. Therefore I made the PageMethods ajax call from within the controller and then it worked as expected.

So the result is as follows. This is my ASP.NET Default.aspx:

<%@ Page Language="C#" AutoEventWireup="true" CodeFile="Default.aspx.cs" Inherits="_Default" %>

<!DOCTYPE html>
<head runat="server">
<body ng-app>
    <form id="form1" runat="server">
    <asp:ScriptManager runat="server" EnablePageMethods="true">
            <asp:ScriptReference Path="" />
            <asp:ScriptReference Path="~/JScript.js" />
    <div ng-controller="TestCtrl" ng-init="init()">
  • Line 1: Well, this is a Default.aspx page because we’re using ASP.NET here.
  • Line 8: ng-app tag to indicate an AngularJS app.
  • Line 10: Enable PageMethods.
  • Lines 12-13: AngularJS framework and my own js file containing the AngularJS controller.
  • Line 16: Use my TestCtrl controller with this div element and activate the init() function when the page (view) loads.
  • Line 17: This is the name of the property that it’s value will be displayed and changed following the ajax call. It’ll be initialized in the controller later on.

And the JavaScript AngularJS controller I wrote (JScript.js):

function TestCtrl($scope, $timeout) {
    $scope.source = 10;
    $scope.init = function () {

        PageMethods.Inc($scope.source, function (result) {
            $scope.$apply(function () {
                $scope.source = result;
                $timeout(function () {
                }, 100);

  • Line 2: The source property. Initialized to a value of 10.
  • Line 3: The init() method. This is called by AngularJS because in the html I placed an ng-init in the div.
  • Line 5: The ASP.NET Ajax call. Can be any ajax call here: jQuery, ASP.NET Ajax or whatever you prefer. Note that I’m passing the current value of ‘source’ as an argument to the server which will increment this value.
  • Line 6: In AngularJS you have to call $apply to invoke AngularJS framework for calls outside the framework. Here’s a quote from the docs:

    “$apply() is used to execute an expression in angular from outside of the angular framework. (For example from browser DOM events, setTimeout, XHR or third party libraries). Because we are calling into the angular framework we need to perform proper scope life cycle of exception handling, executing watches.”

    Without $apply this code doesn’t seem to refresh the updated binding onto the html.

  • Line 7: In the callback, change the source property of the controller.
  • Lines 8-10: Using the AngularJS $timeout function to schedule consecutive recursive calls to the init() method. The ‘source’ is expected to increment endlessly.

That’s it. If you run this code you’ll see that it endlessly calls the server using ASP.NET Ajax and updates the AngularJS ‘source’ property as expected.

Although AngularJS looks very tempting and sexy, what’s important to me is to have ease of use and not to be too dependent. Like so many frameworks that seemed so appealing at one time, AngularJS too has the potential to be looked at as an ancient dinosaur one day. That’s OK. I work with a dinosaur on a daily basis (ASP.NET WebForms). I believe that every single developer with several years of experience in any environment, can provide examples to libraries and frameworks that once were considered the pinnacle of technology. Not many survive as new technologies and ideas are being thought of everyday. Therefore I think that you should choose something that you’ll feel comfortable to work with and not just because it is now very hot. Just browse this article, and you’ll find the 10 hottest client side frameworks of today. While their fans argue between themselves which is better (Backbone.JS? AngularJS? Ember.js?), I think that it’s quite clear that not all ten will remain in that list for years to come. Something else will become “hot”. What then? you can’t just replace your website’s framework every couple of months just because some other technology became “hotter” than what you have selected. Therefore, do not pick the hottest. Pick what’s working for you and your team. If it’s AngularJS, great. If it is Backbone JS, great. If you rather keep a more classic approach by manipulating the DOM using jQuery or the amazing Vanilla JS – that’s great too. Just don’t bind yourself to something because of the wrong reasons.

In fairness, I think AngularJS looks very interesting. The concepts seems to be very good. Separation of concerns, testing and advocation of single page applications as true applications. In fact, I’m looking forward to using AngularJS in a real project. However, my main concern over AngularJS is that it seems to me like it is a somewhat “too-closed” of a framework and that you must and abide by “the rules”. While it has advantages as it conforms you to do things “properly, their way”, it is also a disadvantage because if eventually you’ll run into a situation that AngularJS doesn’t do what you expect it to – you’ll have a problem. Then you might want to revert to some non-AngularJS such as jQuery but this is strongly discouraged. You’re welcome to read this very helpful post and replies. You’ll get an idea why you shouldn’t mix the two.

In case you’re asking yourself, I consider both jQuery and ASP.NET Ajax as “open” libraries. They are not frameworks. You can work with them in your website and you can work without. You can decide to adapt newer patterns & plugins and even other libraries. You can use plain JavaScript to manipulate the DOM any way you require with or without them. In short, they are not constraining.

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Posted by on 27/10/2013 in Software Development


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